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Table of Contents

  1. Topic pack - Microeconomics - introduction
  2. 1.1 Competitive Markets: Demand and Supply
  3. 1.1 Competitive Markets: Demand and Supply - notes
  4. 1.1 Competitive markets - questions
  5. 1.1 Competitive markets - simulations and activities
  6. 1.2 Elasticities
  7. 1.2 Elasticities - notes
  8. Section 1.2 Elasticities - questions
  9. Section 1.2 Elasticities - simulations and activities
  10. 1.3 Government intervention
  11. 1.3 Government Intervention - notes
  12. 1.3 Government intervention - questions
  13. 1.3 Government intervention - simulations and activities
  14. 1.4 Market failure
  15. 1.4 Market failure - notes
    1. The meaning of externalities
    2. Types of externalities
    3. How do externalities affect allocative efficiency?
    4. Negative externalities of production
    5. Negative externalities of consumption
    6. The economic theory of traffic congestion
    7. Demerit goods
    8. Government responses - demerit goods
    9. Possible government responses to externalities
    10. Direct government provision
    11. Extension of property rights
    12. Taxes and subsidies
    13. Tradeable pollution rights
    14. Regulation, legislation and direct controls
    15. Positive externalities of production
    16. Positive externalities of consumption
    17. Merit goods
    18. Why might merit goods be underprovided by the market?
    19. Government responses - merit goods
    20. Public goods
    21. Common access resources & sustainability
    22. The tragedy of the Commons
    23. Common access resources in practice
    24. Sustainability
    25. Threats to Sustainability
    26. The threat to sustainability from the use of fossil fuels
    27. The threat to sustainability from poverty
    28. Government responses to threats to sustainability
    29. Cap and Trade Schemes
    30. Promoting Clean Technologies
    31. The 'dirty side' of cleaner technologies
    32. International responses to threats to sustainability
    33. Asymmetric information
    34. Abuse of monopoly power
    35. Inequality
  16. Section 1.4 Market failure - questions
  17. Section 1.4 Market failure - simulations and activities
  18. 1.5 Theory of the firm
  19. 1.5 Theory of the firm - notes (HL only)
  20. Section 1.5 Theory of the firm - questions
  21. Section 1.5 Theory of the firm - simulations and activities
  22. Print View

Promoting Clean Technologies


Clean technologies

Clean technologies are designed to minimise pollution and the emissions of greenhouse gasses, by creating electricity and fuels with a smaller environmental and carbon footprint. These technologies include recycling, renewable energies (wind and solar power, biomass and biofuels and hydropower), green transportation, waste water recycling and energy efficient lighting, homes, buildings, electric motors and commercial and domestic appliances.

The World Bank is the trustee of the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), focused on making renewable energy cost-competitive with coal-fired power. Since its launch in 2008, $US6.5 billion has been allocated to climate change projects in 45 developing countries. These payments represent a subsidy on the development and use of clean technologies.

If government or World Bank subsidies are particularly focused on the generation of electricity using renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, then firms generating electricity using cleaner technologies will face lower costs of production. This will encourage energy producers to produce more wind and solar power, shifting the supply curve to the right and lowering prices for consumers.


Subsidies or tax credits should also encourage increased investment in clean technologies. However, UN research showed 'green' investment in Europe dropped by one-fifth in 2010, while that in developing countries surge ahead.

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Read the following articles comparing and contrasting Europe's commitment to renewable energies and cleaner technologies to that of some developing countries. Use appropriate data to support your analysis.