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Table of Contents

  1. Topic pack - Development economics - introduction
  2. 4.1 Economic development (notes)
  3. 4.1 Economic development (questions)
  4. 4.2 Measuring Economic Development (notes)
  5. 4.2 Measuring development (questions)
  6. 4.3 The role of domestic factors in economic development (notes)
    1. Domestic factors - introduction
    2. An introduction to Tanzania
    3. Education
    4. Primary, secondary or tertiary education?
    5. A dependent population
    6. Tanzanian database
    7. Exploring education in Tanzania - data
    8. Exploring education in Tanzania - Maua and Namyani (video)
    9. Exploring education in Tanzania - lost dreams
    10. Exploring education in Tanzania - reflection
    11. Exploring health in Tanzania - data
    12. Exploring health in Tanzania - videos
    13. Exploring health in Tanzania - living with HIV
    14. Exploring health in Tanzania - reflection
    15. Use of appropriate technology
    16. Technology - sawdust stoves and clean water (videos)
    17. Technology - building good roads
    18. Use of appropriate technology - reflection
    19. Access to credit and micro credit
    20. Microcredit in the community (videos)
    21. Microcredit in the news
    22. Microcredit - reflection
    23. The origins of microcredit
    24. What are the pros and cons of microcredit?
    25. Empowerment of women
    26. Issues relating to empowerment of women (video)
    27. Empowerment - in the news
    28. Empowerment - reflection
    29. Income distribution
    30. Lorenz curve and Gini Coefficient
    31. Income distribution - Tanzania
    32. Income distribution - case studies
    33. Income distribution - reflection
    34. Building a development database (part 7)
  7. 4.3 The role of domestic factors in economic development (questions)
  8. 4.4 The role of international trade (notes)
  9. 4.4 The role of international trade (questions)
  10. 4.5 The role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) (notes)
  11. 4.5 The role of foreign direct investment (questions)
  12. 4.6 The role of foreign aid and multilaterial development assistance (notes)
  13. 4.6 The role of foreign aid and multilateral development assistance (questions)
  14. 4.7 The role of international debt (notes)
  15. 4.7 The role of international debt (questions)
  16. 4.8 The balance between markets and intervention (notes)
  17. 4.8 The balance between markets and intervention (questions)
  18. Print View

S:\triplea_resources\DP_topic_packs\economics\student_topic_packs\media_development\images\productivity.jpgLewis Dual Sector Model

This famous West Indian economist felt that productivity was central to the development of an economy.

This was best achieved by encouraging migration of workers from the less productive sectors of the economy, for example agriculture, which is traditional, into the newer industries of manufacturing and the tertiary sector. The latter would be more productive and so accumulate greater wealth.

In turn, this would generate greater funds for government through taxation, and enable them to spend on the essentials of development. Savings would be encouraged as rates of return would increase. Lewis felt that the marginal productivity of a rural worker was low.

However, the Lewis model also has problems which include the following:

  • As increasing rural-urban migration takes place, a more unequal distribution of income is caused, as the rural migrants initially join the ranks of the urban poor.
  • The idea that the productivity of labour in rural areas is almost zero may be true for certain times of the year. However, during planting and harvesting, the need for labour is critical to the needs of the rural areas.
  • The assumption of a constant demand for labour from the industrial sector is questionable. Increasing technology may be labour saving, reducing the need for labour. In addition, if the industry concerned declines, again the demand for labour will fall.
  • The idea of 'trickle down' has been criticised. Will higher incomes earned in the industrial sector be saved? If the entrepreneurs and labour spend their new found gains rather than save them, funds for investment and growth will not be made available.
  • The rural urban migration has, for many LDCs, been far larger that the industrial sector can provide jobs for. Urban poverty has replaced rural poverty.
  • The model ignores the cost of training and educating the surplus labour from the rural sector, who need to be equipped with new skills to work in the urban sector.